Timescale for the equipping with TPMS:
Already in the vehicle manufacture a direct or indirect TPMS must be integrated, a subsequent equipping is considered as not conforming.
Characteristics of the TPMS according to EU law:
Use of existing sensors of the ESP/ABS by identifying the tyre pressure via the tyre speed and send the data to the central control unit (ECU = Electronic Control Unit)
In the event of pressure loss:
Compared with the direct TPMS:
Tyre pressure monitoring system with the help of sensors in each tyre, which measure the pressure and temperature, send the data collected via radio to a central receiver, data processing, indication on the display for the driver
Compared with the indirect TPMS
In the following situations the vehicle owner or workshop visited come into contact with the direct TPMS:
Consequences for the vehicle owner/keeper:
Because of the complex technology of the TPMS it becomes even more difficult for the owner/keeper to carry out a tyre service themselves. On illumination of the warning signal (e.g. defective tyres or faulty sensor) and when changing tyres they need a workshop with the appropriate service.
Consequences for the workshop:
It is therefore absolutely necessary for workshops, to prepare themselves for the new technology and to take early measures to be able to serve customers with a vehicle with TPMS and to position themselves as specialists in this area of the market.
Today there are numerous vehicles on the market with a direct TPMS, which is why workshops already before the 1st November 2014 are confronted with the software and the service demands of the customer.
In the next few years, the concentration of TPMS in vehicles will continue to increase. All of these vehicles have a need for replacement sensors or sensors for the fitting on winter tyres, which result in a huge sales potential of the relevant deliverables for the workshops.
In addition to the necessary know-how workshops will also need the appropriate tools (e.g. to diagnose problems or to program the sensors) and spare parts (e.g. seals, valves or entire sensors).
To prepare for customers with a direct TPMS in the vehicle, the following measures are necessary:
Solution: Compensate for the increased time spent through good preparatory work, such as telephone consultation about the customer orders or timely provision of material
Solution: Better understanding of the additional costs incurred by good customer advice and information about TPMS with reference to the statutory provisions as well as the emphasis on safety aspects
Solution: Qualification of the staff by self-training, training or instruction, good information sharing, and communication among the employees to promote know-how
Recommendation for the workflow, if the customer wants a diagnosis and problem resolution if the warning lamp lights up, maintenance of their TPMS, or a tyre service (e.g. tyre change, assembly/disassembly):
Please note: As a functional TPMS is part of the operational approval, the workshop must guarantee the functionality after each operation. Corresponding documentation of the condition of the TPMS before and after performing the maintenance, diagnostics and the customer order therefore constitutes a safeguard in the framework of liability and warranty.
The TPMS obligation presents the workshops, particularly in view of the technology of the direct TPMS with many changes and challenges. The development in the market in terms of the dissemination of the TPMS is very positive, which is why at an early stage preparation for the technologies is an advantage.
In the preparations for the work with the direct TPMS the following points are helpful:
Each manufacturer can use a different sensor type for the original equipment of the vehicles. For this reason, there are now over 150 different sensor models on the market.
Original sensors are already pre-programmed with the vehicle-specific details, the sensor can therefore only be used in some specific vehicles. Due to the wide variety of different sensors, it would significantly increase the stock levels and the capital tied up (of the most important original sensors should always be at least 4 units in stock) of the workshop, in order to be able to serve the customer satisfactorily.
Unprogrammed universal sensors are not pre-programmed and can be integrated into most vehicles without any problems. There is therefore no need for a variety of sensors, such as in the original sensors, in order to be able to serve all customers needs (a basic stock of universal sensors is enough). However, in addition to the universal sensors a special programming tool is needed to be able to program the sensors specifically for the vehicle. Via this tool in the first step, the technical specifications of the vehicle are queried and the position of the tyre, in which the sensor is located which is to be programmed (e.g. front left). Subsequently the original sensor is detected by the programming device (depending on the software e.g. by entering the sensor ID or automatic capture by inserting the original sensor) and the collected data is used for the programming of the new sensor. Imitates the original sensor, as it were. If no original sensor should be available, a new sensor ID can also created on the programming tool.
Through the direct TPMS changes are coming to the workshops in the work processes for maintenance or tyre service.
It is important to prepare the employees for these changes, in order to ensure that all customers can be served properly and no errors take place in the advice and handling of TPMS. It is recommended, that employees take part in special training, to learn how to work with TPMS. There are many different providers of TPMS training.
For the installation of the sensors a special tool is required for professional installation or disassembly. These tools simplify the assembly/disassembly of the sensors and ensure that nut and valve for the sensor holder are attached with the correct torque.
The sensors are mounted within the tyre on certain tyre valves:
For the mounting you can choose between an aluminium and a snap-in valve (rubber valve), with special versions of sensors for both kinds of valve (ensure compatibility of valve and sensor). A snap-in valve is usually cheaper and easier to install than an aluminium valve. However, due to the centrifugal forces acting up to a maximum speed of 210 km/h a snap-in valve is not usable, an aluminium valve must be used for these high speeds. Whenever a tyre is changed maintenance of the valve should take place in which the valve core, valve cap, nut, washer and seal are replaced. For this maintenance there are special kits, which contain the required spare parts.
Customers must be informed about:
Qualification / training of employees:
In the case of a vehicle fitted with direct TPMS, note the following:
After the sensors have been programmed and installed in the wheel, it must be ensured that the vehicle also detects the sensor and the communication between the sensor and readout device works. This requires that the sensors of the central receiver (control and data processing unit of the TPMS) are activated, when a new sensor ID is used/created or the original wheel position of the sensor has been changed.
There are three types of training/programming for a new sensor (depending on the capabilities of the vehicle):
There are different types of programming/diagnostic tools with many different functions ranging in price from 500-1500 EUR.
For a diagnosis, the tools make contact with the sensors via radio, so that the fault in the TPMS is shown on the tool display. Typically, only devices of the upper price range have the functionality to produce a direct interface with the OBD and teach in new sensors over it. For the programming of the universal sensors with the typical vehicle data and a cloned or newly created sensor ID a programming tool is unavoidable. It is even possible with some tools, to establish contact via radio with sensors already built-in and to subsequently program them.
An indirect or direct TPMS is already installed during the manufacture of the vehicle. If the manufacturer should not install TPMS in the vehicle, retrofitting is not necessary, because then the vehicle is not subject to the TPMS obligation.
A workshop that offers the TPMS service can help you regarding spare parts such as a service kit for the valve maintenance or a replacement sensor.
Please note that due to the complex technology of the TPMS a specialist workshop, which has the appropriate speciality or programming tools, for tyre changes, maintenance work and in the event of problems (e.g. warning on the display) is to be recommended.
During a tyre service in the case of a direct TPMS the sensor must always be checked.
Vehicles, which are subject to the TPMS obligations, must fit all the tyres with sensors.
If a new tyre should be installed on the vehicle, a sensor which is compatible with the TPMS must also be installed in the vehicle.
For a direct TPMS please note the following during tyre service:
In the case of vehicles that are subject to a TPMS obligation, an indirect or direct TPMS was already fitted during manufacture, because otherwise this vehicle will be issued no type-approval or no approval within the EU member states.
A subsequent installation of a TPMS is not mandatory.
A warning signal is shown in the display of the vehicle, a workshop should be visited as soon as possible, because either the TPMS is not working, or an air leak is present.
During the main inspection according to section 29 of the German Road Traffic Licensing Act a defective TPMS is a minor fault, which however, due to its safety relevance must be corrected at once by the vehicle owner/keeper.
You should visit a workshop as soon as possible or park the vehicle and contact a breakdown service since there is a defective tyre and driving safety is not assured.
The valves for the sensors are subject to normal wear and tear and therefore need to be maintained on a regular basis (recommendation: at each tyre change).
A workshop with TPMS service can carry out the maintenance.
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